Class-XII - Subject : English

G R A M M A R

1)    Tenses
    It is said that grammar is the basic of a language and tense is the basic or grammar.  So we must know the tense.

1)    Main Tense
1.    Present
2.    Past
3.    Future

2)    Sub Tense
1.    Simple
2.    Continuous
3.    Perfect
4.    Perfect Continuous
*    While changing the tense, the changes are made in helping verbs (to be verbs) and form of the verb.
*    Basic Structure    S + V + O
But we have to think only or ‘to be verbs’ and ‘he action verbs’.

1)    Simple Present
Format :     S + main verb (S/es) to
e.g.     1.    We dance in the rain.
          2.    He works hard.
*    ‘S’ or ‘es’  is added to the main verb for the third person singular subjects.
*    No to be verb is used in simple present.
*    ‘do’ and ‘does’ are the hidden to be verbs in simple present.
e.g.     1.    You donot go     2.    Ranjit doesnot call me.
    3.    Do I ?            4.    Does she tell it ?

2)    Simple Post
Format :     Past form of the verb.
e.g.     1.    I jumped on the top.
          2.    People fought the battle.
*    No to be verb is used in simple past.
*    ‘did’ is a hidden to be verb in simple past.
e.g.    1.    The child didnot give back.
         2.    Did we read it ?

3)    Simple Future
Format :     Shall / will + main verb
e.g.     1.    I shall collect the money.
    2.    The boys will recall us.
*    Shall is used for ‘I’ and ‘we’ only.

4)    Present Continuous
Format :     am / is / are + main verb +ing
e.g.     1.    I am teaching
    2.    Gauri is watching.
    3.    My friends are throwing it away.
*    ‘ing’ is used only for main verb.

5)    Past continuous
Format :     was/were + main verb + ing
e.g.     1.    Tannu was driving fastly.
    2.    They were listening silently.

6)    Future Continuous
Format :     shall be / will be + main verb + ing
e.g.     1.    We shall be selling baskets.
    2.    He will be singing.

7)    Present Perfect
*    Past participle is used in every perfect tense.
Format :     have / has + P.P.
e.g.    1.    I have published the novel.
    2.    Kishor has done it well.

8)    Past Perfect
Format :    had + P.P.
e.g.    1.    You had opened the gate.
    2.    She had ordered the material.

9)    Future Perfect
Format :     Shall have / will have +  P.P.
e.g.    1.    We shall have optioned the class.
    2.    He will have gone fastly.

10)    Present Perfect  Continuous.
*    Top be verbs of perfect Tense are used in perfect continuous tense.
Format :  have / has + been + verb + ing
e.g.     1.    I have been walking on the road.
    2.    Neeta has been dancing in rain.

11)    Past Perfect Continuous
Format :     had + been + verb + ing
e.g.    1.    They had been disturbing the society.
    2.    He had been helping them.

12)    Future Perfect Continuous
Format :     shall have / will have + been + verb + ing
e.g.    1.    I shall have been listening carefully.
    2.    It will have been working neatly.
* Remember : 1.    Verbs of ‘Possession’
        1.    Present Tense
1)    have         2)    has
e.g.     1)    I have a pendrive
    2.    She has as interesting story.
2)    Past Tense-    1) had
e.g.     1.    We had our dream
    2.    Parents had the hopes.
    3.    Future Tense     1. Shall have     2. will have
e.g.     1.    I shall have my care.
    2.    They will have he victory.

2)    Verbs of Existence
1)    Present Tense     1. am     2. is     3. are
e.g.     1.    I am glad     2.    he is funny
    3.    You are bold.

2)    Past Tense         1. was     2. were
e.g.    1.    My friend was busy.
    2.    We were the king of the town.

3)    Future Tense     1. shall be     2. will be
e.g.     1.    I shall be lucky in a family.
    2.    They will be optimistic in life.


 Randive Sharad Babanrao,
C.T. Bora Collage,
Shirur, Dist. Pune
(Junior Section)
Mob. 9822091068

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